A hiatus hernia or hiatal hernia is a type of hernia in which the upper part of the stomach protrudes into the chest cavity through the esophageal hiatus in the diapragm due to a tear or weakness in the diaphragm. The most common cause is obesity. The diagnosis is often by endoscopy or medical imaging. A hiatus hernia may be improved by changes such as raising the head of the bed, weight loss, and adjusting eating habits. Medications that reduce gastric acid such as H2 blockers or proton pump inhibitors may help. If the symptoms do not improve with medications a surgical laparoscopic fundoplication may be an option. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications. Symptoms include the taste of acid in the back of the mouth, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, vomiting, breathing problems, and wearing away of the teeth. Complications include esophagitis, esophageal strictures, and Barrett's esophagus. Located above the navel or slightly below the solar plexus, Manipura translates from Sanskrit as the "City of Jewels" (Mani - gem, Pura or Puri - city). Manipura is often associated with the colors yellow, blue in classical tantra, and red in the Nath tradition. Manipura is associated with fire and the power of transformation. It is said to govern digestion and metabolism as the home of Agni and the vital wind Samana Vayu. The energies of Prana Vayu and Apana Vayu (inward and outward flowing energy) meet at the point in a balanced system. Manipura is the home of the coeliac plexus, which innervates most of the digestive system. In chakra-based medicine, practitioners work this area to promote healthier digestion, elimination, pancreas-kidney and Adrenal function. Weak Agni (fire) in the coeliac plexus leads to incompletely digested food, thoughts and emotions, and is a source of ama (toxicity). Prāṇāyāma (Sanskrit: प्राणायाम prāṇāyāma) is a Sanskrit word alternatively translated as "extension of the prāṇa (breath or life force)" or "breath control." The word is composed from two Sanskrit words: prana meaning life force (noted particularly as the breath), and either yama (to restrain or control the prana, implying a set of breathing techniques where the breath is intentionally altered in order to produce specific results) or the negative form ayāma, meaning to extend or draw out (as in extension of the life force). It is a yogic discipline with origins in ancient India.